Books and Articles

Allen, W. F., Ware, C. P., & Garrison, L. M. K. (1867). Slave songs of the United States. New York: A. Simpson & Co.

Bailey, C., & Bledsoe, C. (2000). God, dr. buzzard, and the bolito man: A saltwater Geechee talks about life on Sapelo Island (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday.

Campbell, E. S., Campbell, A., & Gullah Heritage Consulting Services. (2008). Gullahcultural legacies: A synopsis of Gullah traditions, customary beliefs, artforms and speech on Hilton Head Island and vicinal sea islands in South Carolina and Georgia, 3rd ed. Hilton Head, S.C: Gullah Heritage Consulting Services.

Carawan, G., & Carawan, C. (1989). Ain’t you got a right to the tree of life: The people of Johns Island, South Carolina–their faces, their words, and their songs. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Cross, W. (2008). Gullah culture in America. Winston-Salem, NC: John F. Blair, Publisher.

Daise, R. (2007). Gullah branches, West African roots. Orangeburg, SC: Sandlapper Publishing.

Georgia Writers’ Project. Savannah Unit. (1986). Drums and shadows: Survival studies among the Georgia Coastal Negroes. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

Jones, B., & Hawes, B. L. (1972). Step it down: Games, plays, songs and stories form the Afro-American heritage. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Kemble, F. (1863). Journal of a residence on a Georgian plantation in 1838-1839. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green.

Levine, L. W. (1978). Black culture and Black consciousness: Afro-American folk thought from slavery to freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Opala, J. (n.d.). The Gullah: Rice, Slavery and the Sierra Leone-American Connection. Retrieved from

Parrish, L. (1942/1992). Slave Songs of the Georgia Sea Islands 2nd ed. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Rosenbaum, A., & Buis, J. S. (1998). Shout because you’re free: The African American ring shout tradition in coastal Georgia. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press.

Society for the Preservation of Spirituals. (2007). Gullah lyrics to Carolina low country spirituals. Charleston, SC: Society for the Preservation of Spirituals.

Southern, E. (1997). The Music of Black Americans, 3rd ed. New York NY: Norton & Company.

Turner, L.D. (1949). Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Twining, M. A., Baird, K. E., & Clarke, J. H. (1991). Sea Island roots: African presence in the Carolinas and Georgia. Trenton, N.J: Africa World Press.


Carawan, G., & Moving Star Hall Singers. (2003). Been in the storm so long: Spirituals and shouts, children’s game songs. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Davis, J., Armstrong, J., Jones, B., Proctor, W., Morrison, H., & Recorded Anthology of American Music, Inc. (1977). Georgia Sea Island songs. New York: New World Records.

Jones, B., Davis, J., Proctor, W., & Lomax, A. (1998). Southern journey: Earliest times. Cambridge, MA: Rounder Records Corp.

Jones, B., Davis, J., Proctor, W., Lomax, A., & Sea Island Singers. (1998; 1959). Georgia Sea Islands. Cambridge, MA: Rounder.

Lomax, A. (1993). Sounds of the South: A musical journey from the Georgia Sea Islands to the Mississippi Delta. New York, N.Y: Atlantic.

Lomax, A. (1997a). Southern Journey Volume 1: Voices from the American South – Blues, ballads, hymns, reels, shouts, chanteys and work songs. Cambridge, MA: Rounder Records.

Lomax, A. (1997b). Voices from the American South. Cambridge, Mass: Rounder.

McIntosh County Shouters (Musical group). (1984). Slave shout songs from the coast of Georgia. NewYork: Folkways.

The Gullah Kinfolk & Singleton-Prather, A. (2000). Songs uv dee Gullah Pee’Puls. Charleston, SC: Matrix Media Inc.

The Gullah Kinfolk & Singleton-Prather, A. (2002). The Gullah Kinfolk Live. Charleston, SC: Matrix Media Inc.


Carrier, T. (Producer), & Carrier, T. (Director). (1990). Family across the sea. [Video/DVD] Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina ETV.

Cooper, S, & Taublieb, P.(Producer), & Keach, J. (Director). (2000). Enslavement: The story of Fannie Kemble, [TV movie]. United States: Showtime Networks.

Toepke, Alvaro and Angel Serrano (Producer), & Toepke, Alvaro and Angel Serrano (Director). (1998). The language you cry in. [Video/DVD] California Newsreel.

Johnson, R. S., Hicks, A. M., Cleveland, K., ETV Lowcountry., & ETV (Firm). (2008). Penn Center: A legacy of change. Columbia, S.C.: ETV.



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